Page 1: What are variables?
a concept a noun that stands for variation within a group can be a characteristic which is compared with others something that is being related to another
Page 2: What are constants?
something which cannot be varied an unchanging characteristic
basis of comparison
something to which another is being related
Page 3: Other Variables
Outcome Variable Independent Variable
Page 4: Quantitative Vs Categorical
Quantitative Variable the characteristic is measured to be existing in some degrees along a continuum from “less” to “more”
Categorical Variable the characteristic does not vary in degree, amount or quantity
Page 5: Manipulated Vs Outcome
also called experimental variable or treatment variable a variable that is created to study its effect on another
the result of another variable varies for different people, different situations and different conditions
Page 6: Dependent Vs Independent
the observed characteristic that is being related to another whose value relies on another
the characteristic that affects another the characteristic that does not change
Page 7: Extraneous Variable
independent variable that has an effect on other variables variable that is not controlled so that it may render an effect on the dependent variable being observed Examples:
maturation IQ gender class schedule family income study habits
Page 8: What are hypotheses?
a restatement of the research question a prediction of some sort regards the possibility of the outcome of the study usually expressed in “null” statement tested in a quantitative research Null hypothesis does not assume any relationship or difference
Page 9: Advantages
Hypothesis forces us to think more deeply about the possible outcomes of a study. Restating questions as hypothesis involves a philosophy of science. Restating research question as hypothesis helps the researcher see whether or not s/he is investigating a relationship.
Page 10: Disadvantages
Restating questions as hypothesis may lead to a bias, either conscious or unconscious. Stating hypothesis is that focusing attention on a hypothesis may prevent researchers from noticing other phenomena that might be important to study.